Monday, April 7, 2014

International Book Prize for Holocaust Research Awarded to Dr. Avihu Ronen and Prof. Bernard Wasserstein

Dr. Avihu Ronen presenting a lecture on his book about the way in which
 the Shoah was perceived in Israel's first few decades
Scheduled for last December but delayed by the unprecedented Jerusalem snow storm that month, the 2013 Yad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research, in memory of Abraham Meir Schwarzbaum, Holocaust survivor, and his family members murdered in the Holocaust, was awarded Thursday, April 4, 2014 to Dr. Avihu Ronen for his book, Condemned to Life: The Diaries and Life of Chajka Klinger (University of Haifa and Yedioth Books, 2011) and to Prof. Bernard Wasserstein for his book, On the Eve: The Jews of Europe Before the Second World War (London: Profile Books, 2012). At the event, Dr. Ronen presented a lecture on his book and Sabina Schwarzbaum, daughter of the late Abraham Meir Schwarzbaum upon whom the International Book Prize is named after, spoke about her father and his dedication to Holocaust commemoration. 
The judges noted that: “Of all the books that were presented to the Book Prize Committee this year, two books were especially notable. Condemned to Life by Dr. Avihu Ronen weaves together meticulous research regarding different chapters of the Holocaust, with a thorough and sensitive account of the way in which the Holocaust was viewed during Israel's first few decades. Through a critical examination of both of these two central aspects, the author, a respected historian and son of Chajka Klinger, an activist and leader of the underground in Bedzin, Poland, seamlessly combines them together without compromising either. The book offers a rare blend of logic and emotion, humanity and power - a combination that sweeps the reader with it from the very first page and makes the book suitable for both researchers and the general public alike.”
Dorit Novak, Director General of Yad Vashem and Professor Dan Michman,
Head of the International Institute for Holocaust Research and Incumbent 
of the John Najmann Chair of Holocaust Studies attended the event
On the Eve provides a fitting response to the need, felt both in the research world and in higher education, for a broad, comprehensive analytical overview of European Jewry in its entirety and its situation and internal dynamics before the disaster. This lacuna has now been filled by Prof. Bernard Wasserstein’s study which is an excellent work of historical synthesis by a leading scholar that deals with the condition of European Jewry in the 1930's. The author deals with economics, politics, language, culture and intellectual life, institutions, beliefs, internal divisions and more. Elegantly written and organized in a generally thematic manner, the book provides a truly comprehensive, continent-wide step-by-step overview of the situation of European Jewry between the two World Wars which the author describes as "close to terminal collapse. Wasserstein has an unerring feel for telling an anecdote, poignant poem, folk song, or literary selection, all of which appear in abundance throughout his gripping narrative. On the Eve is a thought-provoking and rare academic introduction to European Jewish history during a crucial era, which provides an evaluative framework that allows for a deeper understanding of the Shoah and in many ways is a tour de force.
Sabina Schwarzbaum, daughter of the late Abraham Meir Schwarzbaum
upon whom the International Book Prize is named after, spoke about her
 father and his dedication to Holocaust commemoration
The Yad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research is dedicated to the memory of Holocaust survivor Abraham Meir Schwarzbaum and his family members murdered in the Holocaust: parents Yitzchak and Sara Salamonowicz, sister Rivka Friedman, and brothers Hershel, Gershon, Moshe and Pinchas Mendel. Meir Schwarzbaum, born in Czestochowa on Hanukkah, December 1922, survived the Holocaust in ghettos and camps, among them Theresienstadt and Buchenwald. Born Meir Salamonowicz and later known as Schwarzbaum, he built himself a new life after the war, dedicated to Holocaust commemoration. His daughter, Sabina Schwarzbaum, took it upon herself to continue his legacy, and to carry the torch of memory as an example for the generations to come.
The finalists this year were Alon Confino, Foundational Pasts: The Holocaust as Historical Understanding, Laura Jokusch, Collect and Record, Jewish Holocaust Documentation in Early Postwar Europe and Joanna Tokarska-Bakir, Okrzyki pogromowe. Szkice z antropologii historycznej Polski lat 1939-1946.
The members of the Yad Vashem Book Prize Committee for the year 2013 were: Committee Chairman Prof. Dan Michman, Yad Vashem and Bar-Ilan University, Israel; Prof. Sam Kassow, Trinity College, USA; Dr. Iael Nidam-Orvieto, Yad Vashem, Israel; Prof. Dina Porat, Yad Vashem and Tel Aviv University, Israel; Avner Shalev, Chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate, Israel; Dr. David Silberklang, Yad Vashem, Israel; Prof. Dr. Sybille Steinbacher, University of Vienna, Austria.

Thursday, March 27, 2014

Symposium Sheds Light on Myth of "Judeo-Bolshevism"

Prof. Paweł Śpiewak of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw provides
some examples of antisemitism resulting from the spread of 

"Judeo-Bolshevist" ideas in Poland
On March 24, 2014 the International Institute for Holocaust Research of Yad Vashem hosted an international conference entitled "Judeo-Bolshevism": The Crystallization of an Antisemitic Political Concept.  The conference was made possible through the generous support of the Genesis Philanthropy Group and the Gutwirth Family Fund, and was dedicated to the exploration of the roots and development of one of the most pernicious myths that laid the ideological and psychological foundations of the Holocaust – the association of the Jewish people with communist ideas and practices, as proof of their eternal enmity towards “orderly” Christian society, based on traditional morals and property rights.
Eight prominent scholars researching the issues of antisemitism and inter-ethnic relations, from the US, the Netherlands, Poland, the UK and Israel, took part in the conference.  The scholarly gathering, examining a topic that has never been discussed in such a broad forum before, was attended by over 200 people, including H.E. Mr. Jacek Chodorowicz, Polish Ambassador to Israel, H.E. Mr. Andris Vilcans,  Latvian Ambassador to Israel, representatives from the embassies of Lithuania and Ukraine in Israel, Chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate Mr. Avner Shalev, Director-General of Yad Vashem Ms. Dorit Novak, Ms. Sana Britavsky, Executive Director of the Genesis Philanthropy Group in Israel, Ms. Naomi Ben-Ami, Head of Nativ (the Liaison Bureau), Prof. Yehuda Bauer and leading professors from Israeli universities, and program directors from the AJJDC and the Jewish Agency.

The conference was opened by Prof. Dan Michman, Head of Yad Vashem’s International Institute for Holocaust Research. Conference participants were greeted by Ms. Sana Britavsky, Executive Director of the Genesis Philanthropy Group in Israel, who said: “The discussion about the history and the consequences of this bloody legend is important – both for the understanding of the particular brutality and ferocity of extermination of the Soviet Jews in the first months of the German invasion, and for combating and preventing similar hateful myths from arising and spreading in the modern world – against the Jews as against any others.”
Russian Politics and History Prof. André Gerrits of Leiden University,
Netherlands delivers his lecture on the myth of "Judeo-Bolshevism" 
The first plenary session, The Identification of “Jews” with “Bolshevism”: The Emergence of a Myth was chaired by Dr. Arkadi Zeltser, Director of the Center for Research on the History of Soviet Jews during the Holocaust at the International Institute for Holocaust Research, Yad Vashem. This session explored theoretical issues connected with the creation of the antisemitic myth, and the reasons underlying the popularity of Judeo-Bolshevist ideas in the period between the two World Wars and during WWII.  This was the focus of the lectures delivered by Prof. André Gerrits (Russian Politics and History at Leiden University, Netherlands) and Prof. Zvi Gitelman (Judaic Studies at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor). The presentation by Dr. Daniel Uziel (Yad Vashem) was dedicated to the ways in which Nazi propaganda utilized these ideas to strengthen antisemitic sentiment among Wehrmacht soldiers. 

In his presentation Prof. Zvi Gitelman noted: "The 'Judeo-Bolshevik' myth contains at least five rationales for hostility toward the Jews: they are aliens, foreigners; they are subversive and dangerous; they are anti-Christian; Jews are internationalists rather than patriots; and they threaten the economic foundations of society. All these traits are attributed to Communists as well. For those so inclined, this proves that the Jewish and Communist conspiracies are either the same or very closely related."
The second session, chaired by Prof. Dina Porat, Chief Historian of Yad Vashem, was dedicated to the specific examples of antisemitism resulting from the spread of "Judeo-Bolshevist" ideas in Lithuania (Prof. Christoph Dieckmann, Keele University, Staffordshire), Latvia (Dr. Aron Shneyer, Yad Vashem) and Poland (Prof. Paweł Śpiewak, Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw). Following the presentations, a lively discussion took place. One of the central topics of the discussion was the degree to which "Judeo-Bolshevist" ideas were based on the actual participation of Jews in the Communist movement, and to what extent they reflected a general antisemitic approach with no connection to reality.

Friday, March 14, 2014

A Purim Manuscript from the Holocaust

Purim evening at the Ilia camp in Transylvania in 1943 was a very difficult one. Conditions were unbearable and spirits were very low. Zvi Hershel Weiss, a prisoner at the camp, decided to write a text for the holiday to uplift the mood of his fellow Jews imprisoned alongside him. Recently, Zvi’s son, Shmuel Yitzhak Weiss donated the manuscript, written in Yiddish, to Yad Vashem as part of the Gathering the Fragments campaign.
Zvi Hershel Weiss' Purim manuscript
Shmuel Yitzhak recounts in his testimony that on the evening of Purim 1943, inmates of the camp did not have the traditional Megillah scroll of the Book of Esther to read from. His father, Zvi Hershel Weiss, who according to Shmuel Yitzhak was known for his sense of humor and his love of joking around, hand wrote a text in Yiddish, combining the story in the Book of Esther with the story of the inmates. Zvi read the manuscript accompanied by music, and that is how the Ilia camp celebrated Purim in 1943. (In his testimony to Yad Vashem in 2007 Shmuel Yitzhak recited the text in its original cantillations). In August 1944, the Weiss family were liberated, and later Shmuel and his parents immigrated to Israel.
Shmuel Yitzhak explained his decision to give the rare document to Yad Vashem: "The handwritten document is very dear to my heart and it was difficult for me to part with it, but my wife urged me to give it to Yad Vashem, and in the end I decided that it is important for the Jewish people as a whole and that other people should also know about its existence. I made a copy of the manuscript at home and gave the original to Yad Vashem, and after handing it over wished I had done it earlier."
Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev said: "In many homes in Israel there are personal items and documentation from the Holocaust period that are unknown and not accessible to the public. Many of the owners of these items are unaware of their importance and the necessity to properly and professionally preserve them. We urge people to hand these precious items to Yad Vashem as here they will be well preserved and made accessible to the wider public."
For more information about donating personal items from the Holocaust to Yad Vashem please contact: Phone: 1-800-25-77-77 (within Israel) +972-2-6443888 (outside Israel) Email:

Monday, March 10, 2014

Film Symposium Explores Jewish life in the Netherlands during the Shoah

Those in attendance during the film symposium included staff of the
Department of Teacher Training and Edith Spitz-Polak (third from left),
cousin of Bertram Polak
In 2001, Dr. Arnoud-Jan Bijsterveld, a professor at Tilburg University in the southern Netherlands decided to renovate his house, and being a historian by profession, began to look into the history of its previous owners. To his amazement the house had previously belonged to the Polak family, a Jewish Dutch family in Tilburg that was in the leather business. Last Thursday, March 6, 2014 a symposium was held in the International School for Holocaust Studies of Yad Vashem focusing on Jewish life during the Holocaust through an exploration of Dutch film. The lectures were part of an ongoing enrichment for staff of the Department of Teacher Training who instruct Israeli educators how to teach about the Holocaust. Following an introduction to the day’s events by Sarit Hoch-Markovitz, Director of Teacher Training at the International School of Yad Vashem, a lecture was given by Dr. Bijsterveld, who following his incredible personal discovery, made a documentary about the Jewish Dutch Polak family who had built and lived in his house.
Dr. Bijsterveld during his lecture on the life and death of Bertram Polak
Inspired by the story, Bijsterveld decided to create a documentary film, Here Was Bertram about Bertram Polak, who grew up in the house and was the sole member of his immediate family that was murdered during the Holocaust. As the only boy in a family of four children Bertram Polak enlisted, eventually becoming an officer in the Dutch army. When the Nazis invaded the Netherlands on May 10, 1940 Bertram was called up to fight the Germans before the Dutch surrendered four days later. During the second day of fighting on May 11, Bertram’s family and his uncle’s family fled to Amsterdam where they escaped 3 days later to England, with both families eventually immigrating to the United States. Shortly after returning home to Tilburg to resume working in his father’s business, as the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands solidified the business was later taken over by a German administrator who fired Bertram for being a Jew. Bertram planned to flee the Netherlands with help from his father, first applying for a visa to Cuba and then planning to escape to England by boat.
Page of Testimony filled out for Bertram Polak by his
cousin in 1977
Bertram and the rest of those who sought refuge in England were betrayed, arrested and Bertram was sent to Scheveningen prison. From there he was taken to Amersfoort concentration camp before being sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau and was murdered on August 17, 1942. During his lecture, Bijsterveld explained that Bertram’s father, who had tried to help his son escape the Nazi occupied Netherlands before his arrest, was living in the United States by November, 1942 and upon hearing of the fate of the Jews in the camp in which his son was incarcerated in, suffered from a heart attack and died. In addition to the staff of the Department of Teacher Training, Bertram’s cousin, Edith was also in attendance during the day symposium and even recounted some of her family history while listening attentively to Bijsterveld’s lecture.  Following his search into the life and death of Bertram, Bijsterveld also coordinated the installation of Stolpersteine, German for ‘stumbling stone’, for Bertram which serves as a memorial on the pavement right outside the Polak family home. 
The film symposium concluded with a lecture given by Eyal Boers, a documentary filmmaker and Head of the Film & Television Track in the Communication Department at Ariel University, about the perception of the Jew in Dutch cinema. Boers also showed a part of the documentary film he directed, Classmates of Anne Frank as well as short clips of other films from the Netherlands to show how the Shoah is portrayed in Dutch cinema.
Dr. Bijsterveld's documentary film Here Was Bertram (with English subtitles) can be viewed on youtube:

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

From Yad Vashem’s Spanish and Portuguese Speakers Desk

By Eliana Rapp Badihi
As Head of  Spanish and Portuguese Speakers Desk at Yad Vashem’s International School for Holocaust my main job consists of organizing and coordinating seminars for Spanish and Portuguese speaking educators from Latin America, Spain and Portugal, who are interested in studying about the Holocaust, and helping them to understand how to teach this important subject in the classroom. We also produce and translate educational materials into Spanish and Portuguese and have a website in both languages.
Teachers and educators, working in Jewish educational institutions 
in Latin America listen to a lecture in the classroom, International 
School for Holocaust Studies, Yad Vashem  
This winter has been especially busy as we hosted 4 seminars for Latin American educators. Among the groups who participated in seminars thus far over the past couple months include Masbirim Argentina, a program for university students that have been studying about the Shoah and Morei Morim Lehoraat Hashoah, teachers who have already attended a seminar at the International School for Holocaust studies and have returned as graduates for a more advanced learning program. In addition, to the Yad Vashem seminar, teachers also participated in a year-long program and attended seminars conducted by BAMA (a center for Jewish education) in Buenos Aires, took an online course about the ghettos during the Shoah, and initiated a final project in a Jewish institution before attending the final seminar at Yad Vashem.
At a workshop in the International School for Holocaust Studies, Yad Vashem
The third seminar hosted this winter at Yad Vashem was composed of Latin American educators who work in Jewish educational institutions. More than 27 teachers from 5 countries participated in the seminar from January 13-23, 2014 including educators from Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico and Uruguay. During the 10-day seminar the group studied many of the historical and pedagogical components of the Holocaust, and met survivors who told them their stories and shared with them their life’s experiences. Many participants in the seminar said that hearing the personal stories of Holocaust survivors was one of the most touching moments throughout the educational process. As one graduate of the winter seminar said, “Yad Vashem has taken this extremely difficult subject and successfully passed it on to us [teachers] who in turn have an obligation to pass it on forward to our students." 
Participants of the the latest Latin America seminar outside 
Yad Vashem's International School for Holocaust Studies
Our fourth winter seminar which recently concluded consisted of 28 teachers (from kindergarden all the way to the university level) from 10 Latin American countries including: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, all coming together at the International School for Holocaust Studies around the important goal of providing quality education. In this seminar, for the first time ever we had a representative of the Ministry of Education from Guatemala, who is responsible for the curriculum of Social Sciences for all grade levels and who has been working towards reapplying Shoah education for the schools in Guatemala.  The opportunity to be part of the educational process in which the Shoah is being integrated into the curriculum of countries like Guatemala is of extreme importance.
In all our seminars, one of the more exciting and moving issues is the meeting between teachers from all parts of the world, who are interested in sharing their experiences about teaching the Holocaust and creating the forum for them to learn from one another. Recently, I traveled to Costa Rica to take part in educational development programs that began in September 2009, where B’nai B’rith Costa Rica, in collaboration with the social studies departments of local school districts for the high school curriculum in the Ministry of Education, have been training teachers about the Holocaust. Among those I met are members of the Costa Rican Ministry of Education and a group of 12 teachers, all of which are graduates of the International School for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem, that are now responsible for training all the social studies teachers of Costa Rica.
We hope in the future to be able to continue training teachers, learning about their needs are and provide them with the necessary tools for teaching about the Holocaust.

Sunday, February 9, 2014

Revolt or Rescue? Jewish Dilemmas from the Holocaust

Dr. David Silberklang
"From Warsaw, desperate letters arrived from those still alive. They advised us not to follow their lead; to save ourselves so that at least a small remnant of the movement would survive. Zivia and Antek said that it was a pity for all the blood that had been shed. A telegram arrived from Tabenkin: 'Pursue all paths to rescue.' However, we did not agree. We did not wish to live at the price of the death of our comrades in Warsaw; we did not wish to cower in the shadow of their glory."
From Chajka Klinger’s, “The [Movement] Branch in Będzin,” in Avihu Ronen, “The Cable That Vanished,” Yad Vashem Studies, 41:2 (2013)
Why did Jews attempt revolt in some places and circumstances, yet pursue different avenues in others? What were the goals of attempts at revolts? Were they the same in each place?
Marking the 70th anniversary of various Jewish uprisings during the Holocaust this past year, among them the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April-May 1943) and the revolts in Treblinka (2 August 1943) and Sobibór (14 October 1943), has highlighted these basic questions. Jews grappled with insoluble dilemmas during the Holocaust, both in trying to grasp the Nazis’ intentions and in thinking of what to do in response. Naturally, people faced with a death threat try to save their lives. But at what point did Jews recognize that they faced certain death? And if a rescue attempt was to be considered, whom should they try to rescue? Communal rescue, or even family rescue, was impossible in almost all cases, and individual rescue seemed equally impossible. Attempting to rescue oneself often meant abandoning loved ones, friends and the community, whereas attempting to organize a communal revolt seemed to be a symbolic, suicidal act for the community. These were the kinds of human dilemmas that exercised the late Prof. Israel Gutman and to the understanding of which he contributed so much.

Many of the revolt attempts in Eastern Europe had interconnections. The armed undergrounds in Warsaw, Bialystok and Będzin maintained contact with each other, and among the rebels in Treblinka were Jews from the first two cities, while the German staff at Sobibór was concerned that the Jews working there would hear about the revolts in Treblinka and in the various ghettos and then attempt the same in Sobibór.
The new issue of Yad Vashem Studies (41:2) addresses questions of facing death and of rescue and revolt regarding Będzin, Sobibór and Warsaw. Avihu Ronen presents a fascinating story hidden from the public eye for decades – the dispute regarding revolt and rescue between socialist Zionist leaders in Eretz Israel and socialist Zionist youth movement and underground leaders in the Będzin ghetto in Poland. Following the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, leaders in Eretz Israel cabled the underground leaders in Będzin, urging them to save themselves and abandon the idea of revolt. But as Chajka Klinger, the Hashomer Hatzair leader in Będzin who received the telegram, wrote in her diary, the underground rejected trying to save themselves in abandonment of the community and of their ideals. The telegram sheds light both on the sometimes radically different perspectives of people in the midst of the murder vs. people outside, as well as on the development of Holocaust remembrance in Israel.
In order to unravel some of the mystery of Sobibór's story and the memory of its victims, Yoram Haimi and Wojciech Mazurek have undertaken a new approach to Holocaust research – archaeological excavations. They have successfully determined the actual layout of most of the camp – the camouflaged path along which the victims were driven to the gas chambers, the mass burial pits, and more – as well as numerous artifacts, including pendants and children’s name tags of Dutch Jewish children who arrived in the camp with their parents in summer 1943, that help us better understand the life and death of the Jews who arrived there. Some of those Dutch Jews participated in the uprising in October.
Through these articles, as well Antony Polonsky’s review on an important new book by Dariusz Libionka and Laurence Weinbaum on the true role of the Betar-led ŻZW armed underground in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, historical truth has been retrieved from an obscured past, and in the process a new light is shed on the heartrending, utter impossibility for Jews to rescue large numbers of people in Poland during the Holocaust, and on the insurmountable difficulties facing efforts at revolt.

Yad Vashem Studies 41:2 (2013) has just been published.  For more information, contact:; this article originally appeared in Yad Vashem Jerusalem Magazine vol. 72, now online:

The author is Senior Historian, International Institute for Holocaust Research, and Editor-in-Chief of Yad Vashem Studies.

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev Receives Presidential Medal of Distinction

President Shimon Peres Bestows Award in Ceremony Thursday
Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev receiving the Presidential Medal
of Distinction from President Shimon Peres at the President's Residence 
Today, Thursday, January 30, 2014, Avner Shalev, Chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate, received the Presidential Medal of Distinction from President Shimon Peres in a ceremony held at the President’s Residence. Shalev was awarded for his public service as Chairman of Yad Vashem over the past two decades. During the ceremony, President Peres said: "Thanks to your life's work, I feel Yad Vashem is not only a place of memory, but you have also made it a warning bell for the world. As has been said, "Every human being was created in the image of G-d, there are none above and none below."
"The decoration strengthens and encourages me and all my colleagues at Yad Vashem in our mission to ensure meaningful, relevant and enduring Holocaust remembrance for the Jewish people and for all of humanity, now and for future generations," said Shalev at the conclusion of the event.
The President’s Advisory Committee, headed by former president of the Israeli Supreme Court Meir Shamgar, noted that, “Avner Shalev works tirelessly, employing innovative and original methods, to instill vital Jewish, Zionist and universal values within Israeli and global consciousness, primarily through significant and meaningful Holocaust remembrance. For two decades he has invested his soul, his might and the utmost of his abilities to ensure that the Shoah is appropriately commemorated and its profound implications learned.”  As Chairman of Yad Vashem, Avner Shalev has initiated a comprehensive development program aimed at enabling Yad Vashem to meet the challenges of the 21st century in the challenging contexts of Holocaust documentation, research and education. From the start, Shalev prioritized education, placing it at Yad Vashem's forefront through the establishment of its International School for Holocaust Studies. In addition, his development program has included the establishment of a comprehensive new museum complex, centered around the new Holocaust History Museum, for which Shalev served as chief curator.
The prestigious Presidential Medal of Distinction,  first awarded in 2012 at President Peres' initiative, is bestowed upon rare individuals who have made unique and extraordinary contributions to tikkun olam (“repairing the world”) or to Israel's society, culture and international status, and who personally exemplify the traits of entrepreneurship, innovation, creativity and vision. Among the elite group of the Medal's recipients to date are: US Presidents Barack Obama and Bill Clinton, Henry Kissinger and Zubin Mehta. This year’s awardees include Professor Elie Wiesel and director Steven Spielberg.
Born in Jerusalem, Avner Shalev served as Head of the Bureau of the then Chief of Staff David Elazar, and worked alongside him during the Yom Kippur War. Following his retirement from military service, Shalev assumed the positions of Director of the Culture Authority in the Ministry of Education and Culture and Chairman of the National Council of Culture and Art, and also served on the boards of a wide range of Israeli museums and cultural institutions, including the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Shalev helped found the Sam Spiegel Film & Television School in Jerusalem and was instrumental in creating the Israel Festival as a major event in Jerusalem. In 1993, he was appointed Chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate. In 2003, he received the Israel Prize on behalf of Yad Vashem. In 2007, he received the French Legion of Honor by President Sarkozy and that same year the Spanish Prince of Asturias Prize for Concord on behalf of Yad Vashem. In 2011, Shalev was bestowed the Patron of Jerusalem Award.